西北地区民族传统体育文化的法律保护研究

民族民间传统体育文化是非物质文化遗产的组成部分,西北地区自然地理环境复杂多样,同时多民族聚居、交流与融合及深厚的历史文化的积淀,为西北地区丰富的民族民间传统体育文化资源奠定了自然和人文基础。随着现代化、城市化及现代竞技体育发展的影响,大量的民族民间传统体育文化正在衰退和消失。本课题以西北地区为例对我国民族民间传统体育文化的法律保护进行研究,为有关部门保护民族民间传统体育文化提供参考与借鉴。

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我国对民族民间传统体育文化的法律保护主要依据非物质文化遗产保护的相关规定等行政保护,即公法保护。我国民族民间传统体育文化法律保护存在的问题是:全国缺少一部非物质文化遗产保护方面的基本法,且现行立法层次低;重保护轻传承,法律保护多停留在静态保护阶段;重公法保护、轻私法保护,知识产权和民事保护滞后;立法不完善导致司法救济困境,执法情况不尽人意。

以陕北秧歌、陕西红拳及新疆“达瓦孜”为实证,认为西北地区民族民间传统体育文化的法律保护总体现状是:制订了相关的地方法律及规定;成立了非物质文化遗产保护研究中心;抢救、整理和出版了大量民族民间传统体育文化遗产资源;开展了一系列的保护与传承活动。

我国民族民间传统体育文化法律保护体系贯彻“保护为主、抢救第一、合理利用、传承发展”的方针,活态传承是根本;建立民族民间传统体育专有技术的立法保护模式;合理利用知识产权进行私法保护;建立普查、重点保护和传承、文化生态三种保护机制;主要采取财政支持与奖励的法律救济制度。

关键词:我国 非物质文化遗产民族民间传统体育文化 法律保护 西北地区

Abstract

National and folk traditionalsports culture is an important part of IntangibleCultural Heritage.Naturaland geographicalenvironment is complex and diverse in the Northwest China. At thesame time, multiple nations live together, communicate with eachother and are integrated and there is deephistorical and cultural accumulation.Theselay natural and humane foundations for rich resources of national andfolk traditionalsports culture. Withthe influence of modernization, urbanizationand development of modern sports, a lot of national and folktraditionalsports culture is fading away and even disappearing. Takingthe Northwest as an example, this task researches the legalprotection to national and folk traditionalsports culture in China, providingreferences to relevantdepartments in protecting national and folk traditionalsports culture.

China’sprotection to national and folk traditionalsports culture mainly depends on administrativeprotectionsuch as the relevantregulations of the protection to IntangibleCultural Heritage,that’s,public law protection. Themain problems of China’slegal protection to national and folk traditionalsports culture are: there lacks a basic law in protecting IntangibleCultural Heritage inChina, and the level of legislationis low; emphasis is put on protection not on transmission,and the legal protection remains on the stage of static protection;importance is attached to public law protection not on private one,and intellectualproperty rights andcivil protectionare laid behind; the imperfect legislationcauses judicialremediesdifficult, and the lawenforcement is far fromsatisfaction.

Taking“ShanbeiYangko”,“ShanxiHongquan”and Xinjiang “DawaZi”for example, we think the present situation of legal protection ofnational and folk traditionalsports culture in theNorthwest is: relevant local laws and regulations are made; theprotection and research center is set up; plenty of resources ofnational and folk traditionalsports culture are saved, sorted and published; a series ofactivities of protection and transmission are carried out.

China’slegal protection of national and folk traditionalsports culture follow the introduction of “focuson protection, put first attention to saving, make use reasonably,transmit and develop”.Thebasic principle is to transmit lively. Legalprotection model of special techniques of national and folktraditionalsports culture should be set up. Privatelaw protection should be made through making use of intellectualproperty rightsreasonably. Threekinds of protecting system—generalsurvey, protectionof important ones and transmission, cultural ecology—should be setup; main strategy should focus on legal relief system of financialsupport and rewards.

Keywords: China,Intangible CulturalHeritage National andfolk traditionalsports culture, legal protection, Northwest region

目 录

1问题的提出1

1.1研究目的4

1.2 研究意义4

2研究现状综述5

西北地区民族传统体育文化的法律保护研究 
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